WHAT IS FENCING?
Fencing is a sword-type sport that is made with weapons that do not have cutting and sinking features, and is based on various principles of attack and defense. Fencing consists of 3 parts; Foil, Epee and Sabre(Saber).
History of Fencing
The origin of the word fencing comes from the word "skerman" or "seberman" used in the German language to mean "protection, defense".
Using sword and its teaching is based on before BC. B.C. It is known that in 2000, sword was taught in China. Homer in the Iliad BC He explains that the Ancient Greeks performed with swords during the holidays and festivities in the year 1000. These festivities continued as major master shows in the subsequent Greek ages. In Rome, it was accepted that young people gathered in Mars Square to work with this type of sword called "Vectis", as well as teaching the soldiers the skill of using swords in this period, and giving it to teachers who work gladiators as an assignment. The Romans called the fencing art “Armatura” and the soldiers who used successful weapons “Doctore Armarum” to meet their food and other needs more. A.D. According to Vegece, the author of the book "The Art of Military", who lived in the 4th century, during this period, the teachers of fencing asked the soldiers to learn stub and pierce movements rather than cutting.
In the Middle Ages, the sword was the primary weapon for knights. The French organized their first tournament in 1066, equipping their knights with swords and other assault weapons. The Epee weapon was made in the 14th century to smash the armor used by warriors. Because it was long and heavy, it would eliminate the warrior by both breaking and cutting the two-handed armor armor.
The fencing technique first began in Spain, schools for teaching were opened, but in Italy they developed. The two-handed heavy epee was left in the 16th century and replaced by a type of epee called "Repiere" made by the Spanish, and was considered the most suitable weapon for the duel, which was very common at that time. Later, Italian teachers Marozzo and Agrippa set the guiding principles of fencing and pioneered. Marozzo wrote in 1536, and Agrippa in 1553, each of which describes the four main positions of fencing. Continuing the school formed by these teachers, Fabri and Gigani spread these rules to different countries of Europe, and approved the superiority of Italian teachers.
Fabri played a big role in the development of fencing by introducing foot-moving, unloading, counter-ejaculation, counter-evacuation, doubling, cover-up, response and time stroke techniques, which were not done until then in the 17th century.
Meanwhile, in France, many of the nobility died in a duel, a non-hazardous, sharp-edged, four-pointed and light weapon was made. This weapon, whose teaching method was published by the fencing instructor Besnard in 1653, was named "Fleuret", or "Flöre", based on a hook-shaped button on the tip to prevent it from sinking.
The fencing, which became a competition sport in the late 19th century, has been organized as federations in England and France since 1902.
Fencing, which started to take place in the Olympic Games since 1896, was not included in the 1912 Stockholm Olympics as a result of disagreements over the rules. In order to resolve the discussions, the International Fencing Federation (The International Fencing Federation) was created in 1913. FIE has been empowered to organize world championships and Olympic matches, as the most authoritative body of fencing matches.
Individual fencing matches between women started at the 1924 Olympic Games for the first time, and team matches started in the 1960 Olympic Games. Until 1990, women were not allowed to compete in epede, and with a decision taken in 1990 this ban was lifted. The kicks, which were originally determined by the referees or by the rumors of the striking athlete, started to be detected by electric devices from 1934 in the midwife and from 1954 in the flyer, thereby reducing the margin of error in the referee decisions.
In 1993, a number of rule changes were made in the match times and scoring by the International Fencing Federation to make fencing more interesting and not to bore the audience.
SOURCE: (Rıza Arseven, Unpublished Lecture Notes, Istanbul / 1970)